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# Content
1 <!-- DTD for TV listings
3 This is a DTD to represent a TV listing. It doesn't explicitly group
4 programmes by day or by channel, instead broadcast time and channel
5 are attributes of the 'programme' element. Optionally, data about the
6 TV channels used can be stored in 'channel' elements.
8 Data about a TV programme are stored in the subelements of element
9 'programme', but metadata such as when it will be broadcast are stored
10 as attributes.
12 Many of the details have a 'lang' attribute so that you can
13 store them in multiple languages or have mixed languages in a single
14 listing. This 'lang' should be the two-letter code such as 'en' or
15 'fr_FR'. Or you can just leave it out and let your reader take a
16 guess.
18 Unless otherwise specified, an element containing CDATA must have some
19 text if it is written.
21 An example XML file for this DTD might look like this:
23 <tv generator-info-name="my listings generator">
24 <channel id="">
25 <display-name lang="de">3SAT</display-name>
26 </channel>
27 <channel id="">
28 <display-name lang="de">ARD</display-name>
29 <display-name lang="de">Das Erste</display-name>
30 </channel>
32 <programme start="200006031633" channel="">
33 <title lang="de">blah</title>
34 <title lang="en">blah</title>
35 <desc lang="de">
36 Blah Blah Blah.
37 </desc>
38 <credits>
39 <director>blah</director>
40 <actor>a</actor>
41 <actor>b</actor>
42 </credits>
43 <date>19901011</date>
44 <country>ES</country>
45 <episode-num system="xmltv_ns">2 . 9 . 0/1</episode-num>
46 <video>
47 <aspect>16:9</aspect>
48 </video>
49 <rating system="MPAA">
50 <value>PG</value>
51 <icon src="pg_symbol.png" />
52 </rating>
53 <star-rating>
54 <value>3/3</value>
55 </star-rating>
56 </programme>
57 <programme> ... </programme>
58 ...
59 </tv>
61 This describes two channels and then a programme broadcast on one of
62 the channels, then some more programmes. Almost everything in the DTD
63 is optional, so you can write files which are much simpler than this
64 example.
66 All dates and times in this DTD follow the same format, loosely based
67 on ISO 8601. They can be 'YYYYMMDDhhmmss' or some initial
68 substring, for example if you only know the year and month you can
69 have 'YYYYMM'. You can also append a timezone to the end; if no
70 explicit timezone is given, UTC is assumed. Examples:
71 '200007281733 BST', '200209', '19880523083000 +0300'. (BST == +0100.)
73 Unless specified otherwise, textual element content may not contain
74 newlines - this is to make it easy to convert into line-oriented
75 formats, and to avoid the question of what exactly a newline would
76 mean in the middle of someone's name or whatever. Leading and
77 trailing whitespace in element content is not significant.
79 At present versions of this DTD correspond to releases of the 'xmltv'
80 package, which is a set of programs to generate and manipulate files
81 conforming to this DTD. Written by Ed Avis ( and
82 Gottfried Szing, thanks to others for suggestions.
84 $Id: xmltv.dtd,v 1.44 2010/04/10 13:11:06 knowledgejunkie Exp $
86 -->
88 <!-- The root element, tv.
90 Date should be the date when the listings were originally produced in
91 whatever format; if you're converting data from another source, then
92 use the date given by that source. The date when the conversion
93 itself was done is not important.
95 To indicate the source of the listings, there are three attributes you
96 can define:
98 'source-info-url' is a URL describing the data source in
99 some human-readable form. So if you are getting your listings from
100 SAT.1, you might set this to the URL of a page explaining how to
101 subscribe to their feed. If you are getting them from a website, the
102 URL might be the index of the site or at least of the TV listings
103 section.
105 'source-info-name' is the link text for that URL; it should
106 generally be the human-readable name of your listings supplier.
107 Sometimes the link text might be printed without the link itself, in
108 hardcopy listings for example.
110 'source-data-url' is where the actual data is grabbed from. This
111 should link directly to the machine-readable data files if possible,
112 but it's not rigorously defined what 'actual data' means. If you are
113 parsing the data from human-readable pages, then it's more appropriate
114 to link to them with the source-info stuff and omit this attribute.
116 To publicize your wonderful program which generated this file, you can
117 use 'generator-info-name' (preferably in the form 'progname/version')
118 and 'generator-info-url' (a link to more info about the program).
119 -->
120 <!ELEMENT tv (channel*, programme*)>
122 source-info-url CDATA #IMPLIED
123 source-info-name CDATA #IMPLIED
124 source-data-url CDATA #IMPLIED
125 generator-info-name CDATA #IMPLIED
126 generator-info-url CDATA #IMPLIED >
128 <!-- channel - details of a channel
130 Each 'programme' element (see below) should have an attribute
131 'channel' giving the channel on which it is broadcast. If you want to
132 provide more detail about channels, you can give some 'channel'
133 elements before listing the programmes. The 'id' attribute of the
134 channel should match what is given in the 'channel' attribute of the
135 programme.
137 Typically, all the channels used in a particular TV listing will be
138 included and then the programmes using those channels. But it's
139 entirely optional to include channel details - you can just leave out
140 channel elements or provide only some of them. It is also okay to
141 give just channels and no programmes, if you just want to describe
142 what TV channels are available in a certain area.
144 Each channel has one id attribute, which must be unique and should
145 preferably be in the form suggested by RFC2838 (the 'broadcast'
146 element of the grammar in that RFC, in other words, a DNS-like name
147 but without any URI scheme). Then one or more display names which are
148 shown to the user. You might want a different display name for
149 different languages, but also you can have more than one name for the
150 same language. Names listed earlier are considered 'more canonical'.
152 Since the display name is just there as a way for humans to refer to
153 the channel, it's acceptable to just put the channel number if it's
154 fairly universal among viewers of the channel. But remember that this
155 isn't an official statement of what channel number has been
156 allocated, and the same number might be used for a different channel
157 somewhere else.
159 The ordering of channel elements makes no difference to the meaning of
160 the file, since they are looked up by id and not by their position.
161 However it makes things like diffing easier if you write the channel
162 elements sorted by ASCII order of their ids.
163 -->
164 <!ELEMENT channel (display-name+, icon*, url*) >
165 <!ATTLIST channel id CDATA #REQUIRED >
167 <!-- A user-friendly name for the channel - maybe even a channel
168 number. List the most canonical / common ones first and the most
169 obscure names last. The lang attribute follows RFC 1766.
170 -->
171 <!ELEMENT display-name (#PCDATA)>
172 <!ATTLIST display-name lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
174 <!-- A URL where you can find out more about the element that contains
175 it (programme or channel). This might be the official site, or a fan
176 page, whatever you like really.
178 If multiple url elements are given, the most authoritative or official
179 (which might conflict...) sites should be listed first.
180 -->
181 <!ELEMENT url (#PCDATA)>
183 <!-- programme - details of a single programme transmission
185 A show will be exactly the same whether it is broadcast at 18:00 or
186 19:00, and on whichever channel. Technical details like broadcast
187 time don't affect the content of the programme itself, so they are
188 included as attributes of this element. Start time and channel are
189 the two that you must include.
191 Sometimes VCR programming systems like PDC or VPS have their own
192 notion of 'start time' which is different from the actual start time,
193 so there are attributes for that. In practice, stop time will usually
194 be the start time of the next programme, but if you can get it more
195 accurate, good for you. Similarly, you can specify a code for
196 Gemstar's Showview or VideoPlus programming systems.
198 TV listings sometimes have the problem of listing two or more
199 programmes in the same timeslot, such as 'News; Weather'. We call
200 this a 'clump' of programmes, and the 'clumpidx' attribute
201 differentiates between two programmes sharing the same timeslot and
202 channel. In this case News would have clumpidx="0/2" and Weather
203 would have clumpidx="1/2". If you don't have this problem, be
204 thankful!
206 It's intended that start time and stop time, when both are present,
207 make a half-closed interval: a programme is considered to be
208 broadcasting _at_ its start time but to stop just before its stop
209 time. In this way a programme from 11:00 to 12:00 does not overlap
210 with another programme from 12:00 to 13:00, not even for a moment.
211 Nor is there any gap between the two.
213 To do: Some means of indicating breaks between programmes on the same
214 channel. The 'channel' attribute references the 'id' of a channel
215 element, but the DTD doesn't give a way to specify this constraint.
216 Perhaps there is some better XML syntax we could use for that.
217 -->
218 <!ELEMENT programme (title+, sub-title*, desc*, credits?, date?,
219 category*, language?, orig-language?, length?,
220 icon*, url*, country*, episode-num*, video?, audio?,
221 previously-shown?, premiere?, last-chance?, new?,
222 subtitles*, rating*, star-rating*, review* )>
223 <!ATTLIST programme start CDATA #REQUIRED
225 pdc-start CDATA #IMPLIED
226 vps-start CDATA #IMPLIED
227 showview CDATA #IMPLIED
228 videoplus CDATA #IMPLIED
229 channel CDATA #REQUIRED
230 clumpidx CDATA "0/1" >
232 <!-- Programme title, eg 'The Simpsons'. -->
233 <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)>
234 <!ATTLIST title lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
236 <!-- Sub-title or episode title, eg 'Datalore'. Should probably be
237 called 'secondary title' to avoid confusion with captioning!
238 -->
239 <!ELEMENT sub-title (#PCDATA)>
240 <!ATTLIST sub-title lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
242 <!-- Description of the programme or episode.
244 Unlike other elements, long bits of whitespace here are treated as
245 equivalent to a single space and newlines are permitted, so you can
246 break lines and write a pretty-looking paragraph if you wish.
247 -->
248 <!ELEMENT desc (#PCDATA)>
249 <!ATTLIST desc lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
251 <!-- Credits for the programme.
253 People are listed in decreasing order of importance; so for example
254 the starring actors appear first followed by the smaller parts. As
255 with other parts of this file format, not mentioning a particular
256 actor (for example) does not imply that he _didn't_ star in the film -
257 so normally you'd list only the few most important people.
259 Adapter can be either somebody who adapted a work for television, or
260 somebody who did the translation from another language. Maybe these
261 should be separate, but if so how would 'translator' fit in with the
262 'language' element?
263 -->
264 <!ELEMENT credits (director*, actor*, writer*, adapter*, producer*,
265 composer*, editor*, presenter*, commentator*,
266 guest* )>
267 <!ELEMENT director (#PCDATA)>
268 <!ELEMENT actor (#PCDATA)>
269 <!ATTLIST actor role CDATA #IMPLIED>
270 <!ELEMENT writer (#PCDATA)>
271 <!ELEMENT adapter (#PCDATA)>
272 <!ELEMENT producer (#PCDATA)>
273 <!ELEMENT composer (#PCDATA)>
274 <!ELEMENT editor (#PCDATA)>
275 <!ELEMENT presenter (#PCDATA)>
276 <!ELEMENT commentator (#PCDATA)>
277 <!ELEMENT guest (#PCDATA)>
280 <!-- The date the programme or film was finished. This will probably
281 be the same as the copyright date.
282 -->
283 <!ELEMENT date (#PCDATA)>
285 <!-- Type of programme, eg 'soap', 'comedy' or whatever the
286 equivalents are in your language. There's no predefined set of
287 categories and it's okay for a programme to belong to several.
288 -->
289 <!ELEMENT category (#PCDATA)>
290 <!ATTLIST category lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
292 <!-- The language the programme will be broadcast in. This does not
293 include the language of any subtitles, but it is affected by dubbing
294 into a different language. For example, if a French film is dubbed
295 into English, language=en and orig-language=fr.
297 There are two ways to specify the language. You can use the
298 two-letter codes such as en or fr, or you can give a name such as
299 'English' or 'Deutsch'. In the latter case you might want to use the
300 'lang' attribute, for example
302 <language lang="fr">Allemand</language>
303 -->
304 <!ELEMENT language (#PCDATA)>
305 <!ATTLIST language lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
307 <!-- The original language, before dubbing. The same remarks as for
308 'language' apply.
309 -->
310 <!ELEMENT orig-language (#PCDATA)>
311 <!ATTLIST orig-language lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
313 <!-- The true length of the programme, not counting advertisements or
314 trailers. But this does take account of any bits which were cut out
315 of the broadcast version - eg if a two hour film is cut to 110 minutes
316 and then padded with 20 minutes of advertising, length will be 110
317 minutes even though end time minus start time is 130 minutes.
318 -->
319 <!ELEMENT length (#PCDATA)>
320 <!ATTLIST length units (seconds | minutes | hours) #REQUIRED>
322 <!-- An icon associated with the element that contains it.
323 src: uri of image
324 width, height: (optional) dimensions of image
326 These dimensions are pixel dimensions for the time being, eventually
327 this will change to be more like HTML's 'img'.
328 -->
329 <!ELEMENT icon EMPTY>
331 width CDATA #IMPLIED
332 height CDATA #IMPLIED>
334 <!-- The value of the element that contains it. This is for elements
335 that can have both a textual 'value' and an icon. At present there is
336 no 'lang' attribute here because things like 'PG' are not translatable
337 (although a document explaining what 'PG' actually means would be).
338 It happens that 'value' is used only for this sort of thing.
339 -->
340 <!ELEMENT value (#PCDATA)>
342 <!-- A country where the programme was made or one of the countries in
343 a joint production. You can give the name of a country, in which case
344 you might want to specify the language in which this name is written,
345 or you can give a two-letter uppercase country code, in which case the
346 lang attribute should not be given. For example,
348 <country lang="en">Italy</country>
349 <country>GB</country>
350 -->
351 <!ELEMENT country (#PCDATA)>
352 <!ATTLIST country lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
354 <!-- Episode number
356 Not the title of the episode, its number or ID. There are several
357 ways of numbering episodes, so the 'system' attribute lets you specify
358 which you mean.
360 There are two predefined numbering systems, 'xmltv_ns' and
361 'onscreen'.
363 xmltv_ns: This is intended to be a general way to number episodes and
364 parts of multi-part episodes. It is three numbers separated by dots,
365 the first is the series or season, the second the episode number
366 within that series, and the third the part number, if the programme is
367 part of a two-parter. All these numbers are indexed from zero, and
368 they can be given in the form 'X/Y' to show series X out of Y series
369 made, or episode X out of Y episodes in this series, or part X of a
370 Y-part episode. If any of these aren't known they can be omitted.
371 You can put spaces whereever you like to make things easier to read.
373 (NB 'part number' is not used when a whole programme is split in two
374 for purely scheduling reasons; it's intended for cases where there
375 really is a 'Part One' and 'Part Two'. The format doesn't currently
376 have a way to represent a whole programme that happens to be split
377 across two or more timeslots.)
379 Some examples will make things clearer. The first episode of the
380 second series is '1.0.0/1' . If it were a two-part episode, then the
381 first half would be '1.0.0/2' and the second half '1.0.1/2'. If you
382 know that an episode is from the first season, but you don't know
383 which episode it is or whether it is part of a multiparter, you could
384 give the episode-num as '0..'. Here the second and third numbers have
385 been omitted. If you know that this is the first part of a three-part
386 episode, which is the last episode of the first series of thirteen,
387 its number would be '0 . 12/13 . 0/3'. The series number is just '0'
388 because you don't know how many series there are in total - perhaps
389 the show is still being made!
391 The other predefined system, onscreen, is to simply copy what the
392 programme makers write in the credits - 'Episode #FFEE' would
393 translate to '#FFEE'.
395 You are encouraged to use one of these two if possible; if xmltv_ns is
396 not general enough for your needs, let me know. But if you want, you
397 can use your own system and give the 'system' attribute as a URL
398 describing the system you use.
399 -->
400 <!ELEMENT episode-num (#PCDATA)>
401 <!ATTLIST episode-num system CDATA "onscreen">
403 <!-- Video details: the subelements describe the picture quality as
404 follows:
406 present: whether this programme has a picture (no, in the
407 case of radio stations broadcast on TV or 'Blue'), legal values are
408 'yes' or 'no'. Obviously if the value is 'no', the other elements are
409 meaningless.
411 colour: 'yes' for colour, 'no' for black-and-white.
413 aspect: The horizontal:vertical aspect ratio, eg '4:3' or '16:9'.
415 quality: information on the quality, eg 'HDTV', '800x600'.
417 -->
418 <!ELEMENT video (present?, colour?, aspect?, quality?)>
419 <!ELEMENT present (#PCDATA)>
420 <!ELEMENT colour (#PCDATA)>
421 <!ELEMENT aspect (#PCDATA)>
422 <!ELEMENT quality (#PCDATA)>
424 <!-- Audio details, similar to video details above.
426 present: whether this programme has any sound at all, 'yes' or 'no'.
428 stereo: Description of the stereo-ness of the sound. Legal values
429 are currently 'mono','stereo','dolby','dolby digital','bilingual'
430 and 'surround'. 'bilingual' in this case refers to a single audio
431 stream where the left and right channels contain monophonic audio
432 in different languages. Other values may be added later.
434 -->
435 <!ELEMENT audio (present?, stereo?)>
436 <!ELEMENT stereo (#PCDATA)>
438 <!-- When and where the programme was last shown, if known. Normally
439 in TV listings 'repeat' means 'previously shown on this channel', but
440 if you don't know what channel the old screening was on (but do know
441 that it happened) then you can omit the 'channel' attribute.
442 Similarly you can omit the 'start' attribute if you don't know when
443 the previous transmission was (though you can of course give just the
444 year, etc.).
446 The absence of this element does not say for certain that the
447 programme is brand new and has never been screened anywhere before.
448 -->
449 <!ELEMENT previously-shown EMPTY>
450 <!ATTLIST previously-shown start CDATA #IMPLIED
451 channel CDATA #IMPLIED >
453 <!-- 'Premiere'. Different channels have different meanings for this
454 word - sometimes it means a film has never before been seen on TV in
455 that country, but other channels use it to mean 'the first showing of
456 this film on our channel in the current run'. It might have been
457 shown before, but now they have paid for another set of showings,
458 which makes the first in that set count as a premiere!
460 So this element doesn't have a clear meaning, just use it to represent
461 where 'premiere' would appear in a printed TV listing. You can use
462 the content of the element to explain exactly what is meant, for
463 example:
465 <premiere lang="en">
466 First showing on national terrestrial TV
467 </premiere>
469 The textual content is a 'paragraph' as for <desc>. If you don't want
470 to give an explanation, just write empty content:
472 <premiere />
473 -->
474 <!ELEMENT premiere (#PCDATA)>
475 <!ATTLIST premiere lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
477 <!-- Last-chance. In a way this is the opposite of premiere. Some
478 channels buy the rights to show a movie a certain number of times, and
479 the first may be flagged 'premiere', the last as 'last showing'.
481 For symmetry with premiere, you may use the element content to give a
482 'paragraph' describing exactly what is meant - it's unlikely to be the
483 last showing ever! Otherwise, explicitly put empty content:
485 <last-chance />
486 -->
487 <!ELEMENT last-chance (#PCDATA)>
488 <!ATTLIST last-chance lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
490 <!-- New. This is the first screened programme from a new show that
491 has never been shown on television before - if not worldwide then at
492 least never before in this country. After the first episode or
493 programme has been shown, subsequent ones are no longer 'new'.
494 Similarly the second series of an established programme is not 'new'.
496 Note that this does not mean 'new season' or 'new episode' of an
497 existing show. You can express part of that using the episode-num
498 stuff.
499 -->
500 <!ELEMENT new EMPTY>
502 <!-- Subtitles. These can be either 'teletext' (sent digitally, and
503 displayed at the viewer's request), 'onscreen' (superimposed on the
504 picture and impossible to get rid of), or 'deaf-signed' (in-vision
505 signing for users of sign language). You can have multiple subtitle
506 streams to handle different languages. Language for subtitles is
507 specified in the same way as for programmes.
508 -->
509 <!ELEMENT subtitles (language?)>
510 <!ATTLIST subtitles type (teletext | onscreen | deaf-signed) #IMPLIED>
512 <!-- Rating. Various bodies decide on classifications for films -
513 usually a minimum age you must be to see it. In principle the same
514 could be done for ordinary TV programmes. Because there are many
515 systems for doing this, you can also specify the rating system used
516 (which in practice is the same as the body which made the rating).
517 -->
518 <!ELEMENT rating (value, icon*)>
519 <!ATTLIST rating system CDATA #IMPLIED>
521 <!-- 'Star rating' - many listings guides award a programme a score as
522 a quick guide to how good it is. The value of this element should be
523 'N / M', for example one star out of a possible five stars would be
524 '1 / 5'. Zero stars is also a possible score (and not the same as
525 'unrated'). You should try to map whatever wacky system your listings
526 source uses to a number of stars: so for example if they have thumbs
527 up, thumbs sideways and thumbs down, you could map that to two, one or
528 zero stars out of two. If a programme is marked as recommended in a
529 listings guide you could map this to '1 / 1'. Because there could be many
530 ways to provide star-ratings or recommendations for a programme, you can
531 specify multiple star-ratings. You can specify the star-rating system
532 used, or the provider of the recommendation, with the system attribute.
533 Whitespace between the numbers and slash is ignored.
534 -->
536 <!ELEMENT star-rating (value, icon*)>
537 <!ATTLIST star-rating system CDATA #IMPLIED>
539 <!-- Review. Listings guides may provide reviews of programmes in
540 addition to, or in place of, standard programme descriptions. They are
541 usually written by in-house reviewers, but reviews can also be made
542 available by third-party organisations/individuals. The value of this
543 element must be either the text of the review, or a URL that links to it.
544 Optional attributes giving the review source and the individual reviewer
545 can also be specified.
546 -->
547 <!ELEMENT review (#PCDATA)>
548 <!ATTLIST review type (text | url) #REQUIRED
549 source CDATA #IMPLIED
550 reviewer CDATA #IMPLIED>
552 <!-- (Why are things like 'stereo', which must be one of a small
553 number of values, stored as the contents of elements rather than as
554 attributes? Because they are data rather than metadata. Attributes
555 are used for things like the language or encoding of element contents,
556 or for programme transmission details.) -->